National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme is implemented in the States / UTs for the Prevention and Control of Vector Borne diseases like Malaria, Filaria, Dengue, Chikungunya, Kala –azar and Japanese Encephalitis.Vector borne diseases are major public health problem in India.
Under NVBDCP three pronged strategy for prevention and control of
Vector Borne Diseases are :-
• Epidemic preparedness.
• Rapid Response.
2. INTEGRATED VECTOR MANAGEMENT:-
• Use of impregnated bed nets ( ITN ).
• Use of Larvivorous Fish.
• Anti Larval Measures.
• Source Reduction.
• Minor environmental engineering.
Malaria, Filaria, Chikungunya, Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis are transmitted by different kinds of Vector Mosquitoes. Whereas Kala–Azar is transmitted by sand flies. Besides Malaria and Lymphatic Filariasis, Dengue and Chickunguniya are also taken care of under NVBDCP.
Kala-azar and J. E. has not yet been reported in A & N Islands.
Malaria is a protozoal disease caused by infection with parasites which belong to the genus plasmodium.
The disease is transmitted to man by certain species of female Anophelene mosquito.
Malaria is a major public health problem in Andaman & Nicobar Islands specially in Nicobar District.
Get the blood examined for malaria at the nearest Health Centre and thus ensure early detection and prompt treatment.
Take all the medicines administered and complete the course for complete cure.
Prevent creation of new potential mosquito breeding sites and eliminate existing ones by
I. installation of mosquito proof overhead water storage tank/sump
II. observing dry day once a week for open cement tanks, iron drums, water containers etc
III. avoiding water stagnation in and around the premises in any form and
IV. removing/destroying tyres, coconut shells, bottles and other discarded utensils/material.
Prevent mosquito contact/bite by screening doors/windows, and by using repellants, proper clothing and using mosquito bed nets during sleep at night. Pregnant women and children should use insecticide treated mosquito nets for prevention especially in malaria prevalent areas.
National Anti-Malaria Programme
• National Malaria Control Programme launched in 1953.
• National Malaria Eradication Programme in 1958.
2. Filaria :
Control strategy includes :
1) Vector control through Anti-larval operations.
2) Source reduction.
3) Detection and treatment of microfilaria carriers.
4) Morbidity management.
Revised Filaria Control Strategy :-
• National Health Policy 2002 aims at elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis by 2015 in India.
• MDA with DEC/DEC with Albendozele to all the eligible population for 5 - 7 yrs.
• Morbidity Management (Elephantiasis & Hydrocele).
3. DENGUE / CHIKUNGUNIYA FEVER CONTROL
Chickungunya is caused by the chickungunya virus which is classified in the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus.
How is Chickungunya spread ?
• Chickungunya is spread by the bite of Aedes mosquito, mainly Aedes aegypti and to some extend Aedes albopictus.
• Human are thought to be the major source or reservoir of chickungunya virus for mosquitoes.
• The mosquito usually transmits the disease by biting an infected person and then biting some healthy person.
• An infected person cannot spread the disease directly.
Over the last two decades there has been global increase in the frequency of DF/DHF and its epidicms. First evidence of occurrence of DF was reported from vellore district, Tamil Nadu in 1956. First DHF, out break occurred in Kolkata in 1963. During 1996 severe out break of DF/DHF occurred in Delhi where 10,252 cases were reported and 423 deaths occurred. In 2006, India witnessed another out break of DF/DHF where out of 12,317 cases 184 deaths occurred in 21 States / UTs. In 2007 , Manipur reported out break of Dengue for the first time. In 2006 severe out break of Chikungunya occurred in Andaman & Nicobar Islands. In 2010, Andaman & Nicobar Islands reported out break of DF/DHF for the first time. There has been report of incidence of Dengue and Chikungunya cases in Andaman & Nicobar Islands during 2010, 2011 , 2012 and 2013 also.
Epidemiology of Chickungunya
• Epidemoilogical Data :
• Chikungunya occurs mainly in Africa, India, and Southeast Asia.
• There have been a number of outbreaks (epidemics) in the Philippines and on islands throughout the Indian Ocean.
• In India chickungunya is found in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, A&N Islands, GNCT of Delhi, Rajasthan, Pondicherry and Goa.
• It is primarily found in urban / peri-urban areas.