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National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme (NVBDCP)

National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme is implemented in the States / UTs for the Prevention and Control of Vector Borne diseases like Malaria, Filaria, Dengue, Chikungunya, Kala –azar and Japanese Encephalitis.Vector borne diseases are major public health problem in India.
  Under NVBDCP three pronged strategy for prevention and control of Vector Borne Diseases are :-


• Strengthening of referral services

• Epidemic preparedness.

• Early case detection and complete treatment

• Rapid Response.


• Indoor Residual Spraying

• Use of impregnated bed nets ( ITN ).

• Use of Larvivorous Fish.

• Anti Larval Measures.

• Source Reduction.

• Minor environmental engineering.

Out of the six Vector Borne Diseases :

Malaria, Filaria, Chikungunya, Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis are transmitted by different kinds of Vector Mosquitoes. Whereas Kala–Azar is transmitted by sand flies. Besides Malaria and Lymphatic Filariasis, Dengue and Chickunguniya are also taken care of under NVBDCP. Kala-azar and J. E. has not yet been reported in A & N Islands.


Malaria is a protozoal disease caused by infection with parasites which belong to the genus plasmodium. The disease is transmitted to man by certain species of female Anophelene mosquito. Malaria is a major public health problem in Andaman & Nicobar Islands specially in Nicobar District.

In case of any type of fever: 

Get the blood examined for malaria at the nearest Health Centre and thus ensure early detection and prompt treatment. Take all the medicines administered and complete the course for complete cure. Prevent creation of new potential mosquito breeding sites and eliminate existing ones by

I. installation of mosquito proof overhead water storage tank/sump

 II. observing dry day once a week for open cement tanks, iron drums, water containers etc

 III. avoiding water stagnation in and around the premises in any form and

 IV. removing/destroying tyres, coconut shells, bottles and other discarded utensils/material.

Prevent mosquito contact/bite by screening doors/windows, and by using repellants, proper clothing and using mosquito bed nets during sleep at night. Pregnant women and children should use insecticide treated mosquito nets for prevention especially in malaria prevalent areas.


• National Malaria Control Programme launched in 1953.

 • National Malaria Eradication Programme in 1958.


Control strategy includes :

 1) Vector control through Anti-larval operations.

2) Source reduction.

 3) Detection and treatment of microfilaria carriers.

4) Morbidity management.

 5) IEC.

Revised Filaria Control Strategy :-

 • National Health Policy 2002 aims at elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis by 2015 in India.

 • MDA with DEC/DEC with Albendozele to all the eligible population for 5 - 7 yrs.

 • Morbidity Management (Elephantiasis & Hydrocele).


Chickungunya is caused by the chickungunya virus which is classified in the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus.

How is Chickungunya spread ?

 • Chickungunya is spread by the bite of Aedes mosquito, mainly Aedes aegypti and to some extend Aedes albopictus.

 • Human are thought to be the major source or reservoir of chickungunya virus for mosquitoes.

 • The mosquito usually transmits the disease by biting an infected person and then biting some healthy person.

 • An infected person cannot spread the disease directly.


Over the last two decades there has been global increase in the frequency of DF/DHF and its epidicms. First evidence of occurrence of DF was reported from vellore district, Tamil Nadu in 1956. First DHF, out break occurred in Kolkata in 1963. During 1996 severe out break of DF/DHF occurred in Delhi where 10,252 cases were reported and 423 deaths occurred. In 2006, India witnessed another out break of DF/DHF where out of 12,317 cases 184 deaths occurred in 21 States / UTs. In 2007 , Manipur reported out break of Dengue for the first time. In 2006 severe out break of Chikungunya occurred in Andaman & Nicobar Islands. In 2010, Andaman & Nicobar Islands reported out break of DF/DHF for the first time. There has been report of incidence of Dengue and Chikungunya cases in Andaman & Nicobar Islands during 2010, 2011 , 2012 and 2013 also.

Epidemiology of Chickungunya

 • Epidemoilogical Data :

 • Chikungunya occurs mainly in Africa, India, and Southeast Asia.

 • There have been a number of outbreaks (epidemics) in the Philippines and on islands throughout the Indian Ocean.  

• In India chickungunya is found in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, A&N Islands, GNCT of Delhi, Rajasthan, Pondicherry and Goa.  

• It is primarily found in urban / peri-urban areas.

National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer Diabetes, CVD and Stroke (NPCDCS)


• Prevent and control common NCDs through behaviour and life style changes,

• Provide early diagnosis and management of common NCDs,

• Build capacity at various levels of health care forprevention, diagnosis and treatment of common NCDs,

• Train human resource within the public health setup viz doctors, paramedics and nursing staff to cope with the increasing burden of NCDs, and

• Establish and develop capacity for palliative & rehabilitative care.

National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP)


The NLEP Emblem symbolizes beauty and purity in lotus: Leprosy can be cured and a leprosy patient can be a useful member of the society in the form of a partially affected thumb; a normal fore-finger and the shape of house; the symbol of hope and optimism in a rising sun. The Emblem captures the spirit of hope positive action in the eradication of Leprosy.

National Iodine Defficeincy disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP)

Iodine is an essential micronutrient. It is required at 100-150 micrograms daily for normal human growth and development. The disorders caused due to deficiency of nutritional iodine in the food/diet are called Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD).

Prevention is better than Cure. It is a well-established fact that with the exception of certain types of goiter, Iodine Deficiency Disorders are permanent and incurable. However, all these disorders can be easily prevented before they occur. The simplest method to prevent the broad spectrum of IDD is to consume iodated salt daily. This is the most effective and inexpensive mode to prevent IDD. Since salt is consumed by all everyday, the supply of iodated salt will ensure the availability of iodine for normal body function. The average consumption of iodated salt per person per day is about 10 gms.

Objectives :

The important objectives and components of National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP) are as follows:-

• Surveys to assess the magnitude of the Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

• Supply of iodated salt in place of common salt.

• Resurvey after every 5 years to assess the extent of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and the impact of lodated salt.

• Laboratory monitoring of iodated salt and urinary iodine excretion.


National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) A & N AIDS Control Society(ANACS)


NACP-IV aims to accelerate the process of reversal and to further strengthen the epidemic response in India through a cautious and well defined integration process over the five years 2012-17. Its main objectives are to reduce new infections and provide comprehensive care and support to all PLHIVs and treatment services for all those who require it. Consolidating the gains made till now, NACP–IV aims to accelerate the process of epidemic reversal and further strengthen the epidemic response in India through a cautious and well defined integration process over the five year period. The objectives of NACP- IV are to reduce new infections and provide comprehensive care and support to all PLHIV and treatment services for all those who require it.


Intensifying and consolidating prevention services, with a focus on HRGs and vulnerable population.

Increasing access and promoting comprehensive care, support and treatment.

Expanding IEC services for (a) general population and (b) high risk groups with a focus on behavior change and demand generation.

Building capacities at national, state, district and facility levels.

Strengthening Strategic Information Management Systems.


Continued emphasis on three ones: one Agreed Action Framework, one National HIV/AIDS Coordinating Authority and one Agreed National M&E System.



Respect for the rights of the PLHIV

Civil society representation and participation.

Improved public private partnerships.

Evidence based and result oriented programme implementation.

The five cross-cutting themes that are being focused under NACP-IV are quality, innovation, integration, leveraging partnerships, and stigma and discrimination.


Preventing new infections by sustaining the reach of current interventions and effectively addressing emerging epidemics.

Prevention of Parent to child transmission.

Focusing on IEC strategies for behaviour change in HRG, awareness among general population and demand generation for HIV services.

Providing comprehensive care, support and treatment to eligible PLHIV.

Reducing stigma and discrimination through Greater Involvement of People living with HIV (GIPA).

De-centralizing rollout of services including technical support.

Ensuring effective use of strategic information at all levels of programme.

Building capacities of NGO and civil society partners especially in States of emerging epidemics.

Integrating HIV services with health systems in a phased manner.

Mainstreaming of HIV/AIDS activities with all key central/State level Ministries/ departments will be given a high priority and resources of the respective departments will be leveraged. Social protection and insurance mechanisms for PLHIV will be strengthened.

National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB)


• To reduce the backlog of blindness through identification and treatment of blind at primary, secondary and tertiary levels based on assessment of the overall burden of visual impairment in the country.

• Develop and strengthen the strategy of NPCB for “Eye Health” and prevention of visual impairment; through provision of comprehensive eye care services and quality service delivery.

• Strengthening and upgradation of RIOs to become centre of excellence in various sub-specialities of ophthalmology

• Strengthening the existing and developing additional human resources and infrastructure facilities for providing high quality comprehensive Eye Care in all Districts of the country;

• To enhance community awareness on eye care and lay stress on preventive measures;

• Increase and expand research for prevention of blindness and visual impairment

• To secure participation of Voluntary Organizations/Private Practitioners in eye Care

Reproductive Child Health (RCH-II)


The main aim of the programme is to reduce infant, child and maternal mortality rates. The main objectives of the programme in its first phase were:

• To improve the implementation and management of policy by using a participatory planning approach and strengthening institutions to maximum utilization of the project resources

• To improve quality, coverage and effectiveness of existing Family Welfare services

• To gradually expand the scope and coverage of the Family Welfare services to eventually come to a defined package of essential RCH services.

• Progressively expand the scope and content of existing FW services to include more elements of a defined package of essential

Give importance to disadvantaged areas of districts or cities by increasing the quality and infrastructure of Family Welfare services

Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP)


1. Pursue quality DOTS expansion and enhancement, by improving the case finding are cure through an effective patient-centred approach to reach all patients, especially the poor.

2. Address TB-HIV, MDR-TB and other challenges, by scaling up TB-HIV joint activities, DOTS Plus, and other relevant approaches.

3. Contribute to health system strengthening, by collaborating with other health programmes and general services

4. Involve all health care providers, public, nongovernmental and private, by scaling up approaches based on a public-private mix (PPM), to ensure adherence to the International Standards of TB care.

5. Engage people with TB, and affected communities to demand, and contribute to effective care. This will involve scaling-up of community TB care; creating demand thorugh context-specific advocacy, communication and social mobilization.

6. Enable and promote research for the development of new drugs, diagnostic and vaccines. Operational Research will also be needed to improve programme performance.

National Programme for Prevention and Control of Deafness (NPPCD)

• To prevent the avoidable hearing loss on account of disease or injury.

• Early identification, diagnosis and treatment of ear problems responsible for hearing loss and deafness

• To medically rehabilitate persons of all age groups, suffering with deafness.

• To strengthen the existing inter-sectoral linkages for continuity of the rehabilitation Program, for persons with deafness

• To develop institutional capacity for ear care services by providing support for equipment and material and training personnel

Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP)

• To integrate, coordinate and decentralize surveillance activities

• Undertake surveillance for limited number of health conditions and risk factors

• To establish system for quality data collection, reporting, analysis and feedback using IT

• To improve laboratory support for disease surveillance

• To develop human resource for disease surveillance

To involve all stake holders including those in private sector and communities



• Increase immunization rates and reduce preventable infectious diseases.

• Reduce, eliminate, or maintain elimination of cases of vaccine-preventable diseases.

• Reduce serotype b cases of Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) invasive disease among children under age 5 years

• Reduce measles cases (U.S.-acquired cases).

• Reduce cases of pertussis among children under 1 year of age. Reduce cases of pertussis among adolescents aged 11 to 18 years.